We are a commune of inquiring, skeptical, politically centrist, capitalist, anglophile, traditionalist New England Yankee humans, humanoids, and animals with many interests beyond and above politics. Each of us has had a high-school education (or GED), but all had ADD so didn't pay attention very well, especially the dogs. Each one of us does "try my best to be just like I am," and none of us enjoys working for others, including for Maggie, from whom we receive neither a nickel nor a dime. Freedom from nags, cranks, government, do-gooders, control-freaks and idiots is all that we ask for.
"Shall" is a dandy word, but not used much in the USA anymore. Perhaps it sounds stuffy, or maybe people do not know how to use it. You can say "I shall attend" but you can also say "You shall take out the garbage"
Ever notice in the Bible that men will and G-d shall? If a thing is subject to the will of man, then that thing will happen. If it is in G-d's domain it shall happen. A man "will" rise at sun-up, but the sun "shall" rise. Shall means it is certain to be, regardless of the will of man. I suppose in our age of uncertainty it should not be surprising that this wonderful word has fallen into disuse. By the way, would and should are closely related in usage to will and shall. If a man would do evil, that alone should bring a judgement from G-d.
Usage is different in England and America, so Oxford is not quite the right source. Mark is correct that for lawyers, shall has come by convention to be stronger than will.
As usual, the spam filter will not let me post a link, but "shall or will America" will bring up plenty that illustrate the usages.
Assistant Village Idiot
I don't get this. Yes there are fat people, anywhere from 30-100+ lbs over weight and their are obese people who are 150-400+ lbs overweight. Do you really think that if you limited their carbs they would all be at some fictional ideal weight?
Also, do you overweight people ever look around and see that many people, perhaps half the population are not either overweight or obese? Do you think that they are all on restricted diets? NO! They are genetically predisposed to be the weight that they are just exactly like all the overweight and obese people are genetically predisposed to be the weight that THEY are. How does this simple fact escape you???
YES! if you diet you will lose weight. YES! if you go off the diet you will gain back the weight. Are you beginning to understand this yet? So IF you are genetically predisposed to be overweight or obese you must diet for the rest of your life. This is difficult. You can choose to limit carbs or fat or calories or whatever! But you will have to do it forever. AND when you find something that works FOR YOU, that does not mean you discovered the secret of life. You did not solve the problem for everyone and writing a book doesn't make you god!
So limit carbs if that works for you. Ignore the guy next to you eating 3000 calories a day in mostly carbs and weighs 10 lbs below his ideal weight. Because by recognizing this you invalidate all your proclamations of discovering the secret of fatness. You haven't discovered shit! You are fat because your mother and/or father was fat and NOT because you ate carbs!
Apples and lemons. There are no few people that cannot afford to eat processed carbohydrates without becoming fat, others it affects not at all. Epigenetics expains that this new phenomenon derives from periods of famine, skips generations differently according to sex, and has all sorts of unwanted effects on lives but is something present only in agricultural civilizations. In the before times fasting was a normal part of living which the body was adapted for. It still is but we don't experience fasting so lots of wires are getting crossed, some more than others.
Well, I was taught (70 or 80 years ago) that you use shall when directing other people, and will when you're comitting yourself. When I went on acitve duty ('53) I began to be told you will do such and such, and they were still telling me that when I retired in '75. So much for my early learning I guess.