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US doctors shifting from owners of their own practices to employees of hospitals has very little to do with women and everything to do with reimbursements.
Aside from the seemingly obvious benefits that a hospital (especially large hospitals and hospital chains) can provide in terms economies of scale, there are other factors in play.
As employer provided medical insurance largely replaced individual/family policies, insurance companies have been able to create networks of providers (hospitals and doctors) willing to accept negotiated fees by having the ability to steer large blocks of patients to doctors/hospitals who sign on to these networks.
If physicians want access to these patients, they must negotiate their fees. Once a critical mass of docs signed up, the insurance companies could say "take it or leave it" as the insurance company doesn't need any one doc to be in the network.
Unlike the docs, hospitals are not so abundant and they have more leverage. Insurance companies and hospitals have been happy with arrangements that typically have the insurance company pay 65% of the hospital's standard charge. Here's how it works to the advantage of both:
First, the hospital raises its rates by 50%. Then they agree to a 35% discount which nets them roughly their original charge. You might think the insurance company is upset, but they can pass the increase along to customers.
What's more, they make more in absolute dollars because the profit percent multiplied by a larger absolute premium results in a bigger number.
But it's even more revolting: Because the hospital charges are now so much higher, people are more reluctant to go without insurance which leads to more people buying insurance (because they don't directly see the increased premiums their employer is paying).
As for the doctors, because of quirks in the Medicare system, the overall reimbursements are higher if the same service that was rendered in a doctor's office is rendered by the doctor in the hospital outpatient department. The doc and the hospital simply come up with a salary that estimates the practice revenues and splits this difference. A win-win for the doc and the hospital, but a higher price tag for Medicare.
The hospital is also able to negotiate this 65% discount artificially raised outpatient services that were previously done at a lower rate in the doc's office, e.g. labs, X-rays, drug infusions, injections, minor surgical procedures, etc. Again, the hospital and doc have a good idea about the number of tests and procedures dome each year and come up with a salary that allows each to benefit. win - win - lose!
The problem is that many doctors cannot handle the overwhelming bureaucracy and red tape of Obamacare. So if they can get their practice incorporated into a hospital, that admin burden can be outsourced to the hospital which is better set up to deal with them.
What's killing the hospitals, though. is having to take all comers in the emergency room. I know hospitals here are losing many millions of dollars, between the "homeless" (estimated by one study to cost over a million dollars each in unpaid medical espenses, every year) and illegal aliens, as well as Micronesians who are guaranteed free lifetime healthcare by the federal government and then the government never reimburses the states/hospitals for the costs-- here whole families of Micronesians basically live in the hospital waiting rooms. So one reason hospital fees are so high is they have to try to make others (us) pay for all the free riders they are forced by law to accept in the emergency room.
And here is a well-known secret and even doctors are telling their patients this now. Under Obamacare, you may not be able to get treatment for months because of the approval process you are forced to go through with the insurance companies. However, if you take your ailment and go to the emergency room they must treat you then. So doctors are telling their patients for various problems that need immediate treatment but cannot get dealt with because of Obamacare red tape, to go to the emergency room instead of the doctor's office. So this is why waits at our emergency rooms have now stacked up to 3-6 hours or more.
I think the red tape and the EMR have both had a strong effect.
" typically have the insurance company pay 65% of the hospital's standard charge."
When I was still in practice many insurance polices paid "20%" of the bill but the negotiated charge with the hospital was often less than the "20%" of inflated "retail " charges. The 20% paid more than half the real, "wholesale" bill.
It's been a cartel even before Obamacare put the hospitals in a vertically integrated system which the hospitals thought would make them fat.
Many primary care and even some surgeons have gone to cash practice. That is the only thing that makes sense.