We are a commune of inquiring, skeptical, politically centrist, capitalist, anglophile, traditionalist New England Yankee humans, humanoids, and animals with many interests beyond and above politics. Each of us has had a high-school education (or GED), but all had ADD so didn't pay attention very well, especially the dogs. Each one of us does "try my best to be just like I am," and none of us enjoys working for others, including for Maggie, from whom we receive neither a nickel nor a dime. Freedom from nags, cranks, government, do-gooders, control-freaks and idiots is all that we ask for.
1. "Dwelling place" is "shelter" in the original. Same word is used in modern Hebrew for a creche/childcare center, or battered women's shelter. This word choice sets the tone for the rest of the psalm - the instability of fleeting human life, and refuge in G-d.
2. "Brought forth" is simply "born":
When the hills were not yet born, and the world and land created - and from eternity to eternity you are G-d.
3. "Dust" is a word combining poverty/fragility/humility/despair. In the Bible it's used to mean "the downtrodden". And "turn back" is a clumsy, misleading translation of the Hebrew word for repentance - which is literally "return" rather than turning away.
So in just a few words of Hebrew we have:
You return humanity to humble realization of its fragility, and say "return, sons of Adam".
4. Original is closer to ... "like a day, like yesterday as it passes."
5. "Sweep" is a word meaning "flow/stream" or "driving" rain. So it doesn't imply dismissal, but guiding the course of human life.
The word for grass growing literally means "exchange" or "redoubled" - but the same root is used for one thing/person "passing by" another, indicating a fast rate of growth, but also the transient nature of material existence.
6. Nothing is "cut down" in the original - it "withers and dries".
The inexplicable edit eliminates the cause and effect - we wither under G-d's judgment - and also drops the famous verse 12, source of the phrase "number our days":
12. You taught us to count our days, to bring us a wise heart.
13. "Return O G-d - til when... Be mollified by your servants" - that is, accept our repentance.
The "til when" is rhetorical - since "repentance" is "return" - it is also idiomatic to say G-d "returns" to the penitent, granting forgiveness (Zachariah 1:3 and other places). So "return until when" can mean "allow us to return all they way (that we've strayed)"
14. Satiate us in the morning with your lovingkindness, and we will rejoice and be glad all our days.
15. Original is more ambigous. "As many as" is assumed. It's just:
"Gladden us as the days of our poverty/simplicity;
The years we saw/feared evil"
One interesting interpretation is that this is not recompense, but nostalgia for "the wilderness years" of a person's life, when things were clearer and simpler.
16. OK - but no "power" in the original.
17. "favor" is merely "pleasantness" - the pleasure of G-d's nearness (in context it's the reward for return).
"prosper us" is a very sweet translation, but the original is "establish" - from a word meaning "foundation". That our works should have lasting effect - life in G-d's presence is the only answer to human transience.
This verse pops up often in the Jewish prayer book.