We are a commune of inquiring, skeptical, politically centrist, capitalist, anglophile, traditionalist New England Yankee humans, humanoids, and animals with many interests beyond and above politics. Each of us has had a high-school education (or GED), but all had ADD so didn't pay attention very well, especially the dogs. Each one of us does "try my best to be just like I am," and none of us enjoys working for others, including for Maggie, from whom we receive neither a nickel nor a dime. Freedom from nags, cranks, government, do-gooders, control-freaks and idiots is all that we ask for.
The headline verse in the Hebrew text is "A song of David". But I'll stick with your numbering here to avoid confusion.
Again, the original is terser than the English.
1) The words "cause" "spoken" etc are not present in the original, which reads:
Hear justice, o Lord, hearken (to) my song, listen (to) my prayer, without lips of deceit.
It's true that the word for "listen" comes from the root meaning "ear" - but it's already idiomatic as "listen".
The word "cry" is mistranslated. The word "Rinah" literally means "joy" and implies a prayer that is sung - or expresses stirred up emotion.
2) From you my judgment comes forth, your eyes see straight/justly.
3) No "ifs" in the original:
You tested my heart, you reported me at night, you assayed me without finding, my intentions do not exceed my mouth.
The word for "reported" is used for military inspection, attendance-taking, and for giving orders. A combination of examining presence+task/purpose.
I understand the last section as "I did not swear or promise falsely".
4) This is as good as any other translation. It's a non-sequitir and difficult to parse - broken into strophes, the original reads:
To/for the actions of men,
with your lip's pronouncements,
The ways of the lawbreaker.
5) The original is less self-congratulatory:
(You) support my feet, in your circles, (that) my steps not stumble.
6)"I call upon you" - not strict future tense, but in general.
Hear my speech, not my "words".
7) This is a good example of how much tighter the original is. The translation is fine, but "wondrously show" is simply the verb form of the root for "miracle" - it's just 2 syllables.
Similarly, "o savior of those who take refuge from their adversaries at your right hand" is just four words in Hebrew.
"Adversaries" are literally "those who rise up" - in opposition to G-d.
And those who take refuge are in Your right hand, not "at" your right hand.
8) Apple of the eye is a lovely expression - but in Hebrew it is literally "the spark/glow, the daughter of your eye".
"Hide me" is more "cover me" or "protect me".
9) Good translation.
This excerpt is just half the psalm. It goes on to describe the evil "locked in their fat" and ends with restatement of G-d's salvation:
O to die by Your hand, G-d, to die of old age!
To fulfill one's portion in life, sate one's belly from your secret wisdom -
That the sons be satisfied, and leave more to their babes!
And I through justice will see Your face, and see when I wake your vision.