We are a commune of inquiring, skeptical, politically centrist, capitalist, anglophile, traditionalist New England Yankee humans, humanoids, and animals with many interests beyond and above politics. Each of us has had a high-school education (or GED), but all had ADD so didn't pay attention very well, especially the dogs. Each one of us does "try my best to be just like I am," and none of us enjoys working for others, including for Maggie, from whom we receive neither a nickel nor a dime. Freedom from nags, cranks, government, do-gooders, control-freaks and idiots is all that we ask for.
Garum was a condiment made from the drippings of fermented fatty fish that was popular in Ancient Rome. Many of the anchovy-based condiments that we use today—including colatura di alici and Worcestershire sauce—can trace their development back to the popularity and flavor profile of garum.
They needed something tangy.
Italian, and European food in general, was bland stuff before Columbus' followers brought good plants from the New World. It is funny to me to imagine Asian food without peppers, especially chiles, but that's the history.
My list of some the imports to the Old World and Asia from Central and South America:
Maize (corn), potato, all squash (summer and winter squash, including pumpkin), all peppers, peanut, avocado, every kind of bean (except Fava), Sunflower, Cocoa (chocolate), Tomato, Pineapple, Papaya, Vanilla, Sweet Potato. Also, turkeys.
Of course, the New World brought plenty of good foodstuffs from the Old World: Most grains, cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, Strawberries, apples, Honey Bees, etc etc.
I decided to unplug from politics and news toward the end of last year. One of the things I used to fill the time recovered was watching "Great Courses" that are available free from my library. I watched one about the cultural history of food and cooking. It was one of the most informative and fun 12 hours I've ever spent.
Anyway, garum and its progeny were thoroughly discussed in the course.
I while back I made a post, [url ]The fumes of yesterday's debauch[/url=http://yargb.blogspot.com/2020/07/the-fumes-of-yesterdays-debauch.html], that embedded a video showing a fellow making it. He used an old Roman cookbook to get the recipe.
I'd love to taste it with a habanero chopped up in it. I wonder how it compares to Asian fish sauce, which I put in all kinds of things. Fish sauce is just anchovies and salt, sometimes a little sugar.
Strawberry is not really native to Europe but it originated there as a hybrid cross between the North American species of strawberry and a South American species of strawberry. The hybridization occurred in France but the hybrid soon spread world wide in temperate areas.
The new world had no pets until the idea was introduced from the old world. After all, llamas have a nasty spitting habit, which kind of discouraged the pet idea. Lots of foods traveled across the oceans improving diets, and the New World received syphilis from the old. The Columbian exchange is really fascinating, and worth a little studying up.
Not quite. Humans brought dogs with them when they migrated into the Americas across the Bering Land Bridge. Most of them seem to have been kept either as working dogs (hunting, pulling sleds or travois) or as meat animals. But the Aztecs and Inca bred some down to lap-dog size and buried them with high-status people, which would seem to indicate they were pets. These breeds are now the Chihuahua and Peruvian hairless dogs (although now they have significant post-contact dog admixture as well).
Sadly, most of the pre-contact native dogs were also wiped out after contact, due to introduced canine diseases. There are a few dog breeds from that time that have survived, like the Carolina Dog (or Carolina/Dixie Dingo, or Yellow Dog).
We don't know a whole lot about how the Native Americans viewed their animals, such as the guinea pigs that Incas kept. I'd say that, on the whole, human beings didn't really start treating animals as pets (i.e. having an emotional connection to them) until quite recently. If you kept dogs or cats, it was for work, not for companionship; you didn't bond with them, any more than you bonded with cattle or pigs. (My opinion: once people started having fewer kids, they displaced their maternal/paternal instincts onto animals instead.)
"many students who take calculus end up having to retake it in college anyway"--maybe so, but they blow through the part they worked on so laboriously in a year of high school in short order (and fewer ulcers or sleepless nights), and have time to move into higher levels of calculus before they get to the end of freshman year. That's the people with ordinary math gifts. Students in an engineering curriculum at a first-rate school will hit the ground running with whatever they managed to take in high school. In the 1970s, my public high school offered three full semesters of calculus and analytical geometry, as well as three full semesters of the much more useful physics you can do once you have calculus as a tool.
From what I can tell both cumin and coriander originated from the Middle East/Mediterranean/North Africa. Can you imagine Mexican food without cumin or cilantro? It would be akin to Italian food w/o tomatoes or Irish food w/o potatoes.