We are a commune of inquiring, skeptical, politically centrist, capitalist, anglophile, traditionalist New England Yankee humans, humanoids, and animals with many interests beyond and above politics. Each of us has had a high-school education (or GED), but all had ADD so didn't pay attention very well, especially the dogs. Each one of us does "try my best to be just like I am," and none of us enjoys working for others, including for Maggie, from whom we receive neither a nickel nor a dime. Freedom from nags, cranks, government, do-gooders, control-freaks and idiots is all that we ask for.
There's a lot to comment on here. My first thought was that the airlines are ten years behind the times, technology wise. Even my little homebuilt airplane has "Synthetic Vision" which displays a 3D picture of the terrain below on my iPad screen. The terrain is colored yellow for "You're barely going to miss" and red for "You're gonna' die if you keep going this way". It also displays TV towers and other obstructions. My system only cost $1,500, but apparently that's too much for the airlines...or maybe the government approval process is too expensive.
My second thought was that it's really easy to become disoriented when doing something different.
It's also easy to let your autopilot send you somewhere you don't want to go. I've had that happen to me (in clear conditions). While you're trying to figure out what you did wrong, it's easy to lose situational awareness.
Sorry if this ruffles feathers, but this video is an example of why I always fly American flagged carriers or equiv. Western carriers like BA, Swiss Air, Lufthansa, etc., with Western-trained, English-as-a-first=language pilots.
This isn't "a wrong turn". This is a complete clusterfark of pilot errors, inability to use the autopilot, and making stuff up as they went along. Since this is all synthetic video presumably based on the flight data recorder, we can't be certain whether the terrain alerts and warnings happened just that way, but for a pilot to utterly ignore the terrain avoidance warnings is tantamount to suicide.
As an airline manager and Training Captain with almost 15 years on a regional (50 seat) turbofan-powered airliner at the same company, let me make the following observations:
- The PIC was a very experienced pilot; the SIC had great military experience, but not a lot of airline experience. My speculation is that there was a culture clash going on that had nothing to do with them being Pakistani.
- Lecturing is not mentoring. All Captains should be mentors. No sane airline wants professional co-pilots; they want future captains-in-training. That's why CRM training (and other "safety" training) is so heavily emphasized at all airlines.
- Open communication is essential to safe flight operations. No one person has all the information necessary for the safe execution of any flight. Not crashing is not the same as safe, professional flying.
- Mode errors are common on all flights. Something like 85-90% of all flights have some type of crew error. That's (again) why CRM training is so important. Pilots need to develop the skills necessary to detect threats and errors, and trap them before the put the aircraft in a precarious situation (Undesired Aircraft State in CRM-speak).
- Even though errors are so common on the flight deck, most flight land safely. Why? Because most errors are trapped by one or both pilots, or by an outside resource like ATC.
- Standard procedures help trap errors. When flight crews deviate from "SOP"s, they deliberately (whether knowingly or not) decrease the level of design safety (redundancy, predictability, ...) built into the overall ATC system.
- Airspace is a system. There are a zillion moving parts and if you play your part correctly, then you help make the system work correctly. If you don't do that, you increase the overall risk in the system.
- Autopilots help pilots manage the flight more effectively... in general. But again errors can occur managing the autopilot. Pilots must be able to manage the level of automation required at any particular phase of flight.
- Increased automation has NOT decreased workload on pilots; it has simply redistributed it. It's a common misconception that you put the autopilot on and off you go. That is only true in the sense that IF the autopilot (flight plan, etc) was programmed correctly, there is an extremely high likelihood that it will do what you want. But it still must be monitored for correct operation.
- What has increased automation actually done to the airspace system? Increased the efficiency (density) of operations. To repeat: pilot workload has not decreased; it has been repurposed and rescheduled. Most of the workload is "bunched" into relatively short periods that occur at both predictable (planned) and unpredictable (unplanned, i.e. abnormal) times.
- When things go sideways, you need someone to speak up, and then to ACT. When barriers to communication are setup (as on this flight), deviations from SOP are observed and not challenged (as on this flight), errors are being made and even when they are challenged are not remediated, then what kind of outcome would you expect?
If you have read this far I'm surprised. Even professional pilots need some convincing that the amazing level of safety and success of the airspace system ultimately depends on their constant vigilance.
 Comments can be entertaining but are almost never productive, because the event or situation being commented on is well outside the control of anyone commenting. It's all "Monday morning quarterbacking" for the most part. But here I am commenting...
I get the distinct impression that something was wrong with the captain. He did not get to his age and number of hours through habitual lack of professionalism. Something was very wrong with him on that day. Everything else is just the details of how the errors progressed.